Our methods for the transportation of crude oil and petroleum products.
Due to the fact that the transport is usually carried out in large numbers, the transportation of crude oil and through our company to our clients petroleum products one of the following ways:
Transportation by rail.
Sea transport by tanker.
Transportation via pipelines.
Transportation by road.
Transportation via pipelines
The movement of oil through the pipe is due to the pressure difference created by pumping stations at both ends of the pipe. Oil pipelines are divided into underground and surface and can operate in any weather, it is their great advantage. Onshore pipelines are convenient in that if accident happens, it will be easier to remove, and the fact that they are easier to build. But underground pipelines are less susceptible to external influences and thus more durable. Structurally, pipelines are constructed from pipes with a diameter of 10-140 cm, oil on which moves at a speed of 3 m / s.
At TETRAS pipeline transportation is one of the most economical and environmentally preferred form of transport. Currently, we have a very large number of different bandwidth and length of the pipeline both regional and interstate. Diameter pipes of our large modern oil as high as 12 – 1, 4m, at a speed of 0 – to 15m/s, the total length – up to 5 – 6 thousand Km. This is a very vital component of our supply chain in delivering our products to customers, ports, cities and towns and also delivery of crude oil and raw materials for refining. Thus, natural gas and crude oil are transported substantially only through pipelines. In connection with the program of gas supply small towns and villages we have increased the number of projects on storage facilities.
Pipeline transport of oil and gas condensate production is carried out through our pumping stations. Pumping stations and pipelines intended for transportation of oil and condensate. All these systems are characterized by the presence of high pressures and the passage therethrough of large amounts of oil and condensate. Pipeline transport of oil and gas in Western Europe began to develop rapidly in the last 8 – 10 years, due to the growing need for energy. We at TETRAS are at the fore front of this new trend in pipeline development and transportation.
Systems of pipeline transport of oil and gas is based on the same principle of continuous action that brings them closer to the systems of electro – and heat supply networks, water supply and ventilation systems. The process of pumping the product through the pipeline amounts to replenish the energy flow (eventually to replenish pressure loss) required to break the flow resistance and the geodetic head and internal friction losses, leading to an increase in ambient temperature. The thermodynamic effects in gas – and oil pipelines are reduced mainly to heat exchange with the environment. The flow of gas at high pressure drop is accompanied by Joule-Thomson effect, which is normally balanced growth of the internal energy due to internal friction.
Our system of pipeline transport of petroleum and petrochemical products over long distances is an extensive network of pipelines intended for supply of hydrocarbons from production to places of processing and consumption.
Sea transport by tanker
Marine vessels – Vessels with a very large displacement. This type of transportation is the most popular mode of transportation of all international shipments of crude oil and petroleum products from our company.
Our vessels meet up to the international standards and all have double casing, which increases the level of security as well as the separation of the oil compartment (tank) into compartments. Loading and unloading of oil tankers in such occurs from shore by means of special pumps and pipelines.
Transportation by rail
Despite the fact that the rail network is sufficiently developed in the russian federation and neigbouring countries, this method is not a primary transport. It is mostly used for transporting petroleum products locally within the Russian Federation.
Delivery by Truck
Before pouring oil into the tank for transport, the tank must be specially prepared, namely, previously cleared of the substance to be transported. The tank must have oil-resistant, vapor resistance coating with an electrostatic safety. It is strictly forbidden to transport oil in vessels, which previously transported gasoline, kerosene, and other flammable substances.